For example, open the sample data file These data are a subset of the data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) conducted in 1996.
To launch the Item Analysis platform, select Analyze > Consumer Research > Item Analysis. This shows the dialog in Item Analysis Launch Dialog.
Item Analysis Launch Dialog
For this example, specify all fourteen continuous questions (Q1, Q2,..., Q14) as Y, Test Items and click OK. This accepts the default 2PL model.
If you select the 3PL model, a dialog pops up asking for a penalty for the c parameters (thresholds). This is not asking for the threshold itself. The penalty that it requests is similar to the type of penalty parameter that you would see in ridge regression, or in neural networks.
In cases where the items are questions on a multiple choice test where there are the same number of possible responses for each question, there is often reason to believe (a priori) that the threshold parameters would be similar across items. For example, if you are analyzing the results of a 20-question multiple choice test where each question had four possible responses, it is reasonable to believe that the guessing, or threshold, parameters would all be near 0.25. So, in some cases, applying a penalty like this has some “physical intuition” to support it, in addition to its computational advantages.