Mixed Model is one of several personalities that you can select in the Fit Model launch window. This section describes how you select Mixed Model as your fitting methodology in the Fit Model launch window. Options that are specific to this selection are also covered.
You can specify models with fixed effects, random effects, a repeated structure or a combination of those. The options differ based on the nature of the model that you specify.
To fit models using the mixed model personality, select Analyze > Fit Model and then select Mixed Model from the Personality list. Note that when you enter a continuous variable in the Y list before selecting a Personality, the Personality defaults to Standard Least Squares.
When fitting models using the Mixed Model personality, you can allow unbounded variance components. This means that variance components that have negative estimates are not reported as zero. This option is selected by default. It should remain selected if you are interested in fixed effects, because bounding the variance estimates at zero leads to bias in the tests for fixed effects. See Negative Variances in Standard Least Squares Report and Options for details about on the Unbounded Variance Components option.
Add all fixed effects on the Fixed Effects tab. Use the Add, Cross, Nest, Macros, and Attributes options as needed. For details about using these options, see the Introduction to Fit Model section.
The fixed effects for analysis of the Split Plot.jmp sample data table appear in Fit Model Launch Window Showing Completed Fixed Effects. Note that it is possible to have no fixed effects in the model. For an example, see Spatial Example: Uniformity Trial.
Specify traditional variance component models and random coefficients models using the Random Effects tab.
For a traditional variance component model, specify terms such as random blocks, whole plot error terms, and subplot error terms using the Add, Cross, or Nest options. For details about using these options, see the Introduction to Fit Model section.
Fit Model Launch Window Showing Completed Random Effects Tab shows the random effects specification for the Split Plot.jmp sample data where Carcass is a random block. Split Plot Example describes the example in detail.
To construct random coefficients models, use the Nest Random Coefficients button to create groups of random coefficients.
Select the Random Effects tab and then Add.
Click the Nest Random Coefficients button.
This last step creates random intercept and random slope effects that are correlated within the levels of the random effect. The subject is nested within the other effects due to the variability among subjects. If you believed that the intercept might be fixed for all groups, you would select Intercept[<group>]&Random Coefficients(1) and then click Remove.
You can define multiple groups of random coefficients in this fashion, as in hierarchical linear models. This might be necessary when you have both a random batch effect and a random batch by treatment effect on the slope and intercept coefficients. This might also be necessary in a hierarchical linear model: when you have a random student effect and random school effect on achievement scores and students are nested within school.
Random coefficients are modeled using an unstructured covariance structure. Completed Fit Model Launch Window Showing Random Coefficients shows the random coefficients specification for the Wheat.jmp sample data. (See also Example Using Mixed Model.)
Use the Repeated Structure tab to select a covariance structure for repeated effects in the model. The repeated structure is set to Residual by default. The Residual structure specifies that there is no covariance between observations, namely, the errors are independent. All other covariance structures model covariance between observations. For details about the structures, see Repeated Measures and Spatial Variability in the Statistical Details section.
Repeated Covariance Structure Requirements lists the covariance structures available and the requirements for using each structure.
If you enter a repeated or subject column with the residual structure, those columns are ignored. A pop-up window appears that reads “Repeated columns and subject columns are ignored when the Residual covariance structure is selected.”
When you select one of the spatial covariance structures, a Type list appears from which you select a type of spatial structure. Four types are available: Power, Exponential, Gaussian, and Spherical. Completed Fit Model Launch Window Showing Repeated Structure Tab shows the Spatial Spherical selection for the Uniformity Trial.jmp sample data.