A statistical significance test used in the analysis of contingency tables where sample sizes are small. It is useful when you want to conduct a Chi-square Test, but one of your cells has an expected frequency of five or less. Its name is derived from its inventor, R.A. Fisher, and reflects that the significance of the deviation from a Null Hypothesis can be calculated exactly (as opposed to relying on an approximation whose exactness is realized only as sample size approaches infinity).