Rotations are used to change the reference axes of the factors to make the factors more interpretable. Rotations are applied to the factors extracted from the data. Rotation methods are based on various complexity or simplicity functions. For more information about rotations see the FACTOR Procedure chapter in the SAS/STAT 14.3 User’s Guide (SAS Institute Inc. 2017b), Browne (2001), or Frank and Todeschini (1994).

A weighted solution between the Varimax rotation and the Quartimax rotation. (Orthomax with γ = N/2 where N = number of factors)

A solution that aims to minimize the complexity of factors. This method might result in cross-loadings as variable complexity is not considered in the algorithm. (Orthomax with γ = N where N = number of factors)

A general weighted rotation method where the weight is denoted by γ. Many specific orthogonal rotation methods are Orthomax rotations with a specific γ.

Balances the variable and the factor complexity. (Orthomax with γ = (I(N-1))/(I+N-2) where I = the number of items and N = number of factors)

A general weighted oblique rotation method where the weight is denoted by τ. Many specific oblique rotation methods are Oblimin rotations with a specific τ.