Publication date: 07/30/2020

## Control Charts for Attributes

In the previous types of charts, measurement data was the process variable. This type of data is often continuous, and the charts are based on theory for continuous data. Another type of data is count data, where the variable of interest is a discrete count of the number of defects or blemishes per subgroup. For discrete count data, attribute charts are applicable, as they are based on binomial and Poisson models. Because the counts are measured per subgroup, it is important when comparing charts to determine whether you have a similar number of items in the subgroups between the charts. Attribute charts, like variables charts, are classified according to the subgroup sample statistic plotted on the chart.

#### Determining Which Attribute Chart to Use

Each item is judged as either conforming or non-conforming:

p-chart

Shows the proportion of defective items.

np-chart

Shows the number of defective items.

The number of defects is counted for each item:

c-chart

Shows the number of defective items.

u-chart

Shows the proportion of defective items.

For attribute charts, specify the column containing the defect count or defective proportion as the Process variable. The data are interpreted as counts, unless the column contains non-integer values between 0 and 1.

P charts display the proportion of nonconforming (defective) items in subgroup samples, which can vary in size. Since each subgroup for a P chart consists of Ni items, and an item is judged as either conforming or nonconforming, the maximum number of nonconforming items in a subgroup is Ni.

NP charts display the number of nonconforming (defective) items in subgroup samples. Because each subgroup for an NP chart consists of Ni items, and an item is judged as either conforming or nonconforming, the maximum number of nonconforming items in subgroup i is Ni.

Note: To use the Sigma column property for P or NP charts, the value needs to be equal to the proportion. JMP calculates the sigma as a function of the proportion and the sample sizes.

C charts display the number of nonconformities (defects) in a subgroup sample that usually, but does not necessarily, consists of one inspection unit.

Caution: For a C chart, if you do not specify a Sample Size or Constant Size, then the Sample Label is used as the sample size.

U charts display the proportion of nonconformities (defects) in each subgroup sample that can have a varying number of inspection units.

Caution: For a U chart, if you do not specify a Unit Size or Constant Size, then the Sample Label is used as the unit size.