Publication date: 04/12/2021

The section uses the notation described in Stress. Transformations are used to scale the actual proximities. Transformations would be considered to improve the MDS representation of the actual proximities by taking into account specific structures in the data. The parameters in the transformation functions become additional parameters in the minimization algorithm.

For ratio data:

For interval data:

For ordinal data the data is not transformed, rather the algorithm uses monotone regression rather than least squares regression.

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