For the latest version of JMP Help, visit

Publication date: 11/10/2021


The If() function evaluates the first result expression when its condition evaluates as true (a nonzero or nonmissing value). Otherwise, it evaluates the second result expression.

The syntax is:

If ( condition, result1, result2 );

For example, the following script returns "Young" when the age is less than 12. Otherwise, the script returns "Young at Heart".

dt = Open( "$SAMPLE_DATA/Big" );
dt << New Column( "age group", "Character" );
For Each Row(
	:age group = If( :age <= 12,
		"Young at Heart"

You can also string together multiple conditions and results. The syntax is:

If( condition1, result1,
	condition2, result2,
	resultElse );

In the preceding example, if condition1 is not true, the function continues evaluating until it finds a true condition. Then that condition’s result is returned.

The last result is returned when all conditions are false. And when a value is missing, the missing value is returned. For these reasons, it’s very important to include a default result at the end of the expression. Consider the following example, which recodes gender abbreviations in Big

dt = Open( "$SAMPLE_DATA/Big" );
For Each Row( sex =
		sex == "F", "Female",
		sex == "M", "Male",
		"Unknown" );

The script works like this:

For Each Row( sex =

For each row in the table, sex is the column that is recoded.


Begins the If() loop.

sex == "F", "Female",

If the value of sex is F, replaces the value with Female.

sex == "M", "Male",

If the value of sex is M, replaces the value with Male.

"Unknown" );

If neither of the above conditions are true, replaces the value with Unknown. If this result were omitted and the value of sex were missing, the script would return a missing value.


Ends the loop.

You can also put actions and assignments in the result expression. The following example assigns 20 to x, because the first condition (y < 20) is false:

y = 25;
z = If( y < 20, x = y, x = 20 );

Note: Be careful to use two equal signs (==) for equality tests, not one equal sign (=). An If with an argument such as name=value assigns rather than tests the value.

Avoiding Memory Issues with Multiple If Statements

Running a script that contains dozens of If() Statements can cause memory problems. We recommend reducing the If() nesting. Suppose that your script contains 100 If() statements in this format:

If( val, If( val, If( val, If( val, If( val,
If( val, If( val, If( val, If( val, If( val,
) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) );

Rewrite the script:

If( val, val1, If(val, val2, If( val, val3,
If( val, val4, If( val, val5, If( val, val6, ...) ) ) ) ) );

You can also try setting the maximum call depth. The Maximum Call Depth preference sets the default for the maximum call depth (or stack size) in which JSL built-in functions, user-defined functions, or Recurse() function calls can be made. By default, the maximum call depth is set to 256.

In JMP, your JSL script has a limited amount of physical runtime stack memory in which to perform JSL function calls. By default, this size is set to 2MB. Increasing the maximum call depth can cause a physical runtime stack overflow, so incrementally increase this preference in small amounts until you find the best value that works for your JSL script.

Preferences[1] << Set( Maximum JMP call depth( 64 ) );
Want more information? Have questions? Get answers in the JMP User Community (