Publication date: 11/10/2021

After you click Run, a Structural Equation Model report for the specified model appears. This report has a red triangle menu that contains the following options:

Show Path Diagram

Shows or hides the path diagram in the model report.

Path Diagram Settings

Contains the following options to modify the path diagram for the model:

Customize Diagram

Enables you to customize many aspects of the path diagram. See Customize Diagram Appearance Options.

Layout

Contains two options that change the overall shape of the path diagram. You can choose between a Left to Right layout or a Top to Bottom layout.

Tip: You can also drag items in the path diagram to change the arrangement of specific items.

Copy Diagram

Saves an image of the path diagram to the clipboard. To retain the highest possible quality, paste the clipboard image as a vector graphic.

Copy Diagram Properties

Copies the current path diagram properties to the clipboard. You can then paste the properties into another SEM path diagram.

Paste Diagram Properties

Pastes the path diagram properties from the clipboard into the current SEM path diagram.

Fit Indices

Shows or hides a report that contains a variety of index values that enable you to evaluate the fitted model. In addition to values that appear in the Summary of Fit report, the Fit Indices report also contains the following index values:

TLI

The Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) provides additional guidance for determining model fit. This index is also known as the non-normed fit index (NNFI). The TLI is bounded between 0 and 1. Values greater than 0.95 are preferred (West et al. 2012). See TLI.

NFI

The normed fit index (NFI) provides additional guidance for determining model fit. The NFI is bounded between 0 and 1. Values greater than 0.95 are preferred (West et al. 2012). See NFI.

Revised GFI

The revised goodness-of-fit index provides additional guidance for determining model fit. The revised GFI is bounded between 0 and 1. Values greater than 0.95 are preferred (West et al. 2012). See Revised GFI and Revised AGFI.

Revised AGFI

The revised adjusted goodness-of-fit index provides additional guidance for determining model fit. The revised AGFI is bounded between 0 and 1 (West et al. 2012). See Revised GFI and Revised AGFI.

RMR

The root mean square residual (RMR) provides additional guidance for determining model fit. The residuals for the RMR are from the differences between the observed and model-implied covariances. The RMR is positive and smaller values are preferred (West et al. 2012). See RMR and SRMR.

SRMR

The standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) provides additional guidance for determining model fit. The residuals for the SRMR are from the standardized differences between the observed and model-implied covariances. The SRMR is positive and smaller values are preferred (West et al. 2012). See RMR and SRMR.

Note: For a description of the other values in the Fit Indices report, see Structural Equation Model Fit Report.

Summary of Fit

Shows or hides a report that contains details of the model fit.

Parameter Estimates

Shows or hides a report that contains the unstandardized parameter estimates for the model.

Standardized Parameter Estimates

Shows or hides a report that contains the standardized parameter estimates for the model.

Confidence Intervals

Shows or hides confidence intervals in the Parameter Estimates and Standardized Parameter Estimates reports.

Total Effects

(Available only when a model contains at least one regression or loading variable and the effects converge.) Shows or hides a table of unstandardized and standardized coefficients of the total effects in the model. Standard errors are also included. The test for convergence of the effects is described in Bentler and Freeman (1983).

Indirect Effects

(Available only when a model contains mediating variables and the effects converge.) Shows or hides a table of unstandardized and standardized coefficients of the indirect effects in the model. Standard errors are also included. The test for convergence of the effects is described in Bentler and Freeman (1983).

Prediction Profiler

Enables you to view the effects of a set of predictors on the conditional expected values of a set of outcome variables. When you select this option, a window appears in which you must select one or more predictors and one or more outcomes. The predictions and 95% confidence intervals are based on the model-implied covariance matrix. For more information about the prediction profiler, see Profiler in Profilers.

Note: The initial list of variables in the setup window is limited to variables that are consistent with the model. For example, the Select Predictors list contains only variables that predict something in the model and the Select Outcomes list contains only variables that are predicted by some other variable in the model. Check the Show All Variables box to see all model variables in both lists.

Model Implied Covariances

Shows or hides a report that contains the covariance matrix that is implied by the model.

Model Implied Means

Shows or hides a report that contains the means for each variable that are implied by the model.

Residuals

Shows or hides a report that contains a matrix of the residuals for the model. This matrix is the difference between the model implied covariance matrix and the sample covariance matrix.

Normalized Residuals

Shows or hides a report that contains a matrix of the normalized residuals for the model.

Normalized Residuals Heat Map

Shows or hides a report that contains a heat map of the normalized residuals for the model.

RAM Matrices

Shows or hides a report that contains the model matrices used in reticular action model (RAM) notation.

Covariance of Estimates

Shows or hides a report that contains the covariance matrix of the parameter estimates for the model.

R2 for Endogenous Variables

(Available only when the model is recursive and contains endogenous variables.) Shows or hides a report that contains the R2 values for each endogenous variable in the model. This value is calculated as 1 minus the ratio of the residual variance and the model-implied variance for each endogenous variable. The R2 values represent how much variance is explained by the model in an endogenous variable. An endogenous variable is one that has a path directed at it in the path diagram.

Modification Indices

Enables you to show all or a subset of the estimates of model modification indices. These values can be used to determine which parameters might be added to the model to improve model fit. Each table is sorted by the ChiSquare column in descending order.

All Modification Indices

Shows or hides a table that contains the estimates of all the model modification indices. This table contains a column that indicates the parameter type for each estimate.

Modification Indices for Means

Shows or hides a table that contains the estimates of the model modification indices for the means and intercepts.

Modification Indices for Loadings

Shows or hides a table that contains the estimates of the model modification indices for the loading parameters.

Modification Indices for Regressions

Shows or hides a table that contains the estimates of the model modification indices for the regression parameters.

Modification Indices for Covariances

Shows or hides a table that contains the estimates of the model modification indices for the covariance parameters.

Assess Measurement Model

(Available only for confirmatory factor models that do not have covariances among unique factors.) Shows or hides a variety of statistics and graphs for quantifying the reliability and validity of tests and measures, including indicator reliability, coefficients omega and H, and a construct validity matrix.

The Indicator Reliability plot shows the squared standardized loadings of the latent variables along with a suggested minimum threshold for acceptable reliability (0.25). Low values for a variable indicate that the variable does not do a very good job of capturing variability in the corresponding latent variable.

The Composite Reliability and Construct Maximal Reliability reports show the coefficients Omega (McDonald 1999) and H (Hancock and Mueller 2001), respectively, for each latent variable. These values range from 0 to 1, and it is recommended that they are about 0.70 or greater. Omega represents the proportion of variance of the latent variable(s) in the observed composite score(s). H represents the proportion of latent variable variance represented by the indicators. These estimates are model-dependent; if a one factor model is fit, the resulting Omega is known as general omega. If a factor model with more than one latent variable is fit, the resulting omega estimates are known as subscale omegas. However, if a bi-factor model is fit, the omega for the general factor estimate is known as hierarchical omega, whereas the group factors are known as hierarchical subscale omegas (Rodriguez et al. 2015). The suggested thresholds should be used in the context of the goals for the survey; if you plan to use composite scores to make decisions about individuals, then reliability should be higher than the suggested threshold (around 0.90 or greater) but if you plan to use composite scores for research purposes, then the lower end of the threshold is acceptable (Nunnally 1978).

The Construct Validity Matrix report helps you determine whether latent variables are measuring what you think they are measuring:

– The lower triangular entries contain the latent variable correlations. These entries enable you to check how strongly correlated the latent variables are with each other and compare that to the hypothesized strength of correlation.

– The upper triangular entries are the squared latent variable correlations. These entries enable you to focus on the overlap in variance across latent variables. These statistics are particularly valuable when compared against the diagonal entries in the matrix.

– The diagonal entries contain the average amount of variance extracted by each latent variable, which is equivalent to the average of the indicator reliabilities for each latent variable. A good latent variable should have high values in the diagonal because its indicators have sufficient systematic variance to define it properly. Ideally, the diagonal entry for each latent variable should be higher than the entries above and to the right of it.

The visualization of the construct validity matrix enables you to compare the diagonal entries to the upper triangular entries.

See Example of Using the Assess Measurement Model Report.

Save Columns

Enables you to save columns based on the fitted structural equation model to the data table.

Save Factor Scores

(Available only when there are latent variables in the model.) Saves a column with the factor score computed using the regression method for each latent variable to the data table. The factor scores are calculated in a hidden column that is also added to the data table. This hidden column uses the Estimate Factor Score() JSL function. For more information about this function, see Help > Scripting Index.

Save Bartlett Factor Scores

(Available only when there are latent variables in the model.) Saves a column with the factor score computed using the Bartlett method for each latent variable to the data table. The factor scores are calculated in a hidden column that is also added to the data table. This hidden column uses the Estimate Bartlett Factor Score() JSL function. For more information about this function, see Help > Scripting Index.

Save Prediction Formulas

(Available only when there is at least one endogenous or dependent variable in the model.) Saves a column with a formula for the predicted values of the observed outcomes for each variable to the data table. When there are latent variables in the model, factor scores computed using the Bartlett method are also saved to the data table.

Save Observational Residuals

(Available only when there is at least one endogenous or dependent variable in the model.) Saves a column with the residual values of the observed outcomes for each variable to the data table. When there are latent variables in the model, factor scores computed using the Bartlett method are also saved to the data table.

Copy Model Specification

Copies the current structural equation model specifications to the clipboard. You can then paste the model specifications into another SEM platform report.

Recall in Model Specification

Sets the model in the Model Specification report to the specified model.

Remove Fit

Removes the specified model report from the report window.

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