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Publication date: 11/10/2021


The section uses the notation described in Stress. Transformations are used to scale the actual proximities. Transformations would be considered to improve the MDS representation of the actual proximities by taking into account specific structures in the data. The parameters in the transformation functions become additional parameters in the minimization algorithm.

Ratio Transformation

For ratio data:

Equation shown here

Interval Transformation

For interval data:

Equation shown here

Ordinal Transformation

For ordinal data the data is not transformed, rather the algorithm uses monotone regression rather than least squares regression.

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